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Public Health Well

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes

AbstractMuch of the literature on the healthy worker effect focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Th ...

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population

AbstractThere is an association between stress and dementia. However, less is known about dementia among persons with varied stress responses and sex differences in these associations. We used this population-based cohort study to examine dementia among pe ...

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use

AbstractUnderstanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a “black box” of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and p ...

Evaluation of the Performance of Algorithms That Use Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virological Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

AbstractThe structure of electronic medical record data prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithm ...

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: A National Cohort Study

AbstractA balanced robertsonian translocation (rob) results from fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility, or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-spec ...

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage

AbstractThe time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which the pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the pregnancy loss has already occurred, and additional exposure cannot influence its outcome. H ...

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study

AbstractCrump et al. (Biometrika. 2009;96(1):187–199), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):843–854), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res. 2013;2013(3):11–20) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as a means to improve efficiency (Crump) or re ...

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

AbstractThe survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonme ...

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Workers

AbstractRecently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance susceptibility to infection. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in the health-care field have a higher incidence, duration, and/or severity of influenza-like illness (I ...

Associations Between Features of Placental Morphology and Birth Weight in Dichorionic Twins

AbstractLow birth weight is associated with perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality, and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. In studies of singletons, associations have been reported between features of placental morphol ...

An Investigation of Selection Bias in Estimating Racial Disparity in Stroke Risk FactorsThe REGARDS Study

AbstractSelection due to survival or attrition might bias estimates of racial disparities in health, but few studies quantify the likely magnitude of such bias. In a large national cohort with moderate loss to follow-up, we contrasted racial differences in ...

Impact of Ramadan fasting on kidney function and related outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review protocol

Introduction Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a significant Islamic religious practice that involves abstinence from food, drink and medication from dawn to dusk. As just under a quarter of the world’s population identifies as Muslim, the effect of f ...

Association between adverse childhood experiences and adult diseases in older adults: a comparative cross-sectional study in Japan and Finland

Objective We aimed to examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and diseases in older adults in Japan and Finland. Design Cross-sectional comparative study. Setting Data from a gerontological study in Japan and two public health ...

Diagnosis and treatment for hyperuricemia and gout: a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements

Objectives Despite the publication of hundreds of trials on gout and hyperuricemia, management of these conditions remains suboptimal. We aimed to assess the quality and consistency of guidance documents for gout and hyperuricemia. Design Systematic review ...

Prevalence and factors associated with fatigue in the Lausanne middle-aged population: a population-based, cross-sectional survey

Objective To assess the prevalence and factors associated with fatigue in the general population. Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey performed between May 2014 and April 2017. Setting General population of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland. Pa ...

Epidemiological characteristics of elevated blood pressure among middle and high school students aged 12-17 years: a cross-sectional study in Jiangsu Province, China, 2017-2018

Objective In this study, we aimed to present the epidemiological characteristics of elevated blood pressure among middle and high school students aged 12–17 years in Jiangsu Province. Setting Hypertension, which is considered a rare disease in children, is ...

Global health competencies in UK postgraduate medical training: a scoping review and curricular content analysis

Objective To assess global health (GH) training in all postgraduate medical education in the UK. Design Mixed methodology: scoping review and curricular content analysis using two GH competency frameworks. Setting and participants A scoping review (until D ...

Guidance from key organisations on exploring, confirming and interpreting subgroup effects of medical treatments: a scoping review

Objectives With the increasing interest in personalised medicine, the use of subgroup analyses is likely to increase. Subgroup analyses are challenging and often misused, possibly leading to false interpretations of the effect. It remains unclear to what e ...

Body mass index and clinical outcomes in patients after ischaemic stroke in South Korea: a retrospective cohort study

Objectives Although obesity is a risk factor for stroke, its impact on mortality in patients with stroke remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality due to ischaemic stroke among adults ...

Relationship between gay app use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Shenzhen, China: a serial cross-sectional study

Objectives To investigate the relationship between gay app use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM). Design Serial cross-sectional study. Setting A newly well-developed city in China. Participants 4935 MSM were recruited through offline sa ...

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